In this post, we will learn about Eigenface — an application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for human faces. We will also share C++ and Python code written using OpenCV to explain the concept.
The video below shows a demo of EigenFaces. The code for the application shown in the video is shared in this post.
What is PCA?
In our previous post, we learned about a dimensionality reduction technique called PCA. If you have not read the post, please do so. It is a pre-requisite for understanding this post.
To quickly recap, we learned that the first principal component is the direction of maximum variance in the data. The second principal component is the direction of maximum variance in the space perpendicular (orthogonal) to the first principal component and so on and so forth. The first and second principal components the red dots (2D data) are shown using blue and green lines.
We also learned that the first principal component is the eigenvector of the covariance matrix corresponding to the maximum eigenvalue. The second principal component is the eigenvector corresponding to the second largest eigenvalue. If what was said in this paragraph is not clear to you, it is a good idea to brush up your understanding of PCA by reading the previous post
What are EigenFaces ?
Eigenfaces are images that can be added to a mean (average) face to create new facial images. We can write this mathematically as,
where,
is a new face.
is the mean or the average face,
is an EigenFace,
are scalar multipliers we can choose to create new faces. They can be positive or negative.
Eigenfaces are calculated by estimating the principal components of the dataset of facial images. They are used for applications like Face Recognition and Facial Landmark Detection.
An Image as a Vector
In the previous post, all examples shown were 2D or 3D data points. We learned that if we had a collection of these points, we can find the principal components. But how do we represent an image as a point in a higher dimensional space? Let’s look at an example.
A 100 x 100 color image is nothing but an array of 100 x 100 x 3 ( one for each R, G, B color channel ) numbers. Usually, we like to think of 100 x 100 x 3 array as a 3D array, but you can think of it as a long 1D array consisting of 30,000 elements.
You can think of this array of 30k elements as a point in a 30k-dimensional space just as you can imagine an array of 3 numbers (x, y, z) as a point in a 3D space!
How do you visualize a 30k dimensional space? You can’t. Most of the time you can build your argument as if there were only three dimensions, and usually ( but not always ), they hold true for higher dimensional spaces as well.
How to calculate EigenFaces?
To calculate EigenFaces, we need to use the following steps.
- Obtain a facial image dataset : We need a collection of facial images containing different kinds of faces. In this post, we used about 200 images from CelebA.
- Align and resize images : Next we need to align and resize images so the center of the eyes are aligned in all images. This can be done by first finding facial landmarks. In this post, we used aligned images supplied in CelebA. At this point, all the images in the dataset should be the same size.
- Create a data matrix: Create a data matrix containing all images as a row vector. If all the images in the dataset are of size 100 x 100 and there are 1000 images, we will have a data matrix of size 30k x 1000.
- Calculate Mean Vector [Optional]: Before performing PCA on the data, we need to subtract the mean vector. In our case, the mean vector will be a 30k x 1 row vector calculated by averaging all the rows of the data matrix. The reason calculating this mean vector is not necessary for using OpenCV’s PCA class is because OpenCV conveniently calculates the mean for us if the vector is not supplied. This may not be the case in other linear algebra packages.
- Calculate Principal Components: The principal components of this data matrix are calculated by finding the Eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. Fortunately, the PCA class in OpenCV handles this calculation for us. We just need to supply the datamatrix, and out comes a matrix containing the Eigenvectors
- Reshape Eigenvectors to obtain EigenFaces: The Eigenvectors so obtained will have a length of 30k if our dataset contained images of size 100 x 100 x 3. We can reshape these Eigenvectors into 100 x 100 x 3 images to obtain EigenFaces.
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using OpenCV
The PCA class in OpenCV allows us to compute the principal components of a data matrix. Read the documentation for different usages. Here we are discussing the most common way to use the PCA class.
C++
// Example usage PCA pca(data, Mat(), PCA::DATA_ORDER_ROW, 10); Mat mean = pca.mean; Mat eigenVectors = pca.eigenvectors;
Python
// Example usage mean, eigenVectors = cv2.PCACompute(data, mean=None, maxComponents=10)
where,
data | The data matrix containing every data point as either a row or a column vector. If our data consists of 1000 images, and each image is a 30k long row vector, the data matrix will of size 30k x 1000. |
mean | The average of the data. If every data point in the data matrix is a 30k long row vector, the mean will also be a vector of the same size. This parameter is optional and is calculated internally if it is not supplied. |
flags | It can take values DATA_AS_ROW or DATA_AS_COL indicating whether a point in the data matrix is arranged along the row or along the column. In the code we have shared, we have arranged it as a row vector. Note : In the Python version, you do not have the option of specifying this flag. The data needs to have one image in one row. |
maxComponents | The maximum number of principal components is usually the smaller of the two values 1) Dimensionality of the original data ( in our case it is 30k ) 2) The number of data points ( e.g. 1000 in the above example ). However, we can explicity fix the maximum number of components we want to calculate by setting this argument. For example, we may be interested in only the first 50 principal components. Calculating fewer principal components is cheaper than calculating the theoretical max. |
EigenFace : C++ and Python Code
In this section, we will examine the relevant parts of the code. The credit for the code goes to Subham Rajgaria . He wrote this code as part of his internship at our company Big Vision LLC.
To easily follow along this tutorial, please download code by clicking on the button below. It’s FREE!
Let’s go over the main function in both C++ and Python. Look for the explanation and expansion of the functions used after this code block.
C++
#define NUM_EIGEN_FACES 10 #define MAX_SLIDER_VALUE 255 int main(int argc, char **argv) { // Directory containing images string dirName = "images/"; // Read images in the directory vector<Mat> images; readImages(dirName, images); // Size of images. All images should be the same size. Size sz = images[0].size(); // Create data matrix for PCA. Mat data = createDataMatrix(images); // Calculate PCA of the data matrix cout << "Calculating PCA ..."; PCA pca(data, Mat(), PCA::DATA_AS_ROW, NUM_EIGEN_FACES); cout << " DONE"<< endl; // Extract mean vector and reshape it to obtain average face averageFace = pca.mean.reshape(3,sz.height); // Find eigen vectors. Mat eigenVectors = pca.eigenvectors; // Reshape Eigenvectors to obtain EigenFaces for(int i = 0; i < NUM_EIGEN_FACES; i++) { Mat eigenFace = eigenVectors.row(i).reshape(3,sz.height); eigenFaces.push_back(eigenFace); } // Show mean face image at 2x the original size Mat output; resize(averageFace, output, Size(), 2, 2); namedWindow("Result", CV_WINDOW_AUTOSIZE); imshow("Result", output); // Create trackbars namedWindow("Trackbars", CV_WINDOW_AUTOSIZE); for(int i = 0; i < NUM_EIGEN_FACES; i++) { sliderValues[i] = MAX_SLIDER_VALUE/2; createTrackbar( "Weight" + to_string(i), "Trackbars", &sliderValues[i], MAX_SLIDER_VALUE, createNewFace); } // You can reset the sliders by clicking on the mean image. setMouseCallback("Result", resetSliderValues); cout << "Usage:" << endl << "\tChange the weights using the sliders" << endl << "\tClick on the result window to reset sliders" << endl << "\tHit ESC to terminate program." << endl; waitKey(0); destroyAllWindows(); }
Python
if __name__ == '__main__': # Number of EigenFaces NUM_EIGEN_FACES = 10 # Maximum weight MAX_SLIDER_VALUE = 255 # Directory containing images dirName = "images" # Read images images = readImages(dirName) # Size of images sz = images[0].shape # Create data matrix for PCA. data = createDataMatrix(images) # Compute the eigenvectors from the stack of images created print("Calculating PCA ", end="...") mean, eigenVectors = cv2.PCACompute(data, mean=None, maxComponents=NUM_EIGEN_FACES) print ("DONE") averageFace = mean.reshape(sz) eigenFaces = []; for eigenVector in eigenVectors: eigenFace = eigenVector.reshape(sz) eigenFaces.append(eigenFace) # Create window for displaying Mean Face cv2.namedWindow("Result", cv2.WINDOW_AUTOSIZE) # Display result at 2x size output = cv2.resize(averageFace, (0,0), fx=2, fy=2) cv2.imshow("Result", output) # Create Window for trackbars cv2.namedWindow("Trackbars", cv2.WINDOW_AUTOSIZE) sliderValues = [] # Create Trackbars for i in xrange(0, NUM_EIGEN_FACES): sliderValues.append(MAX_SLIDER_VALUE/2) cv2.createTrackbar( "Weight" + str(i), "Trackbars", MAX_SLIDER_VALUE/2, MAX_SLIDER_VALUE, createNewFace) # You can reset the sliders by clicking on the mean image. cv2.setMouseCallback("Result", resetSliderValues); print('''Usage: Change the weights using the sliders Click on the result window to reset sliders Hit ESC to terminate program.''') cv2.waitKey(0) cv2.destroyAllWindows()
The above code does the following.
- Set the number of Eigenfaces (NUM_EIGEN_FACES) to 10 and the max value of the sliders (MAX_SLIDER_VALUE) to 255. These numbers are not set in stone. Change these numbers to see how the application changes.
- Read Images : Next we read all images in the specified directory using the function readImages. The directory contains images that are aligned. The center of the left and the right eyes in all images are the same. We add these images to a list ( or vector ). We also flip the images vertically and add them to the list. Because the mirror image of a valid facial image, we just doubled the size of our dataset and made it symmetric at that same time.
- Assemble Data Matrix: Next, we use the function createDataMatrix to assemble the images into a data matrix. Each row of the data matrix is one image. Let’s look into the createDataMatrix function
C++
// Create data matrix from a vector of images static Mat createDataMatrix(const vector<Mat> &images) { cout << "Creating data matrix from images ..."; // Allocate space for all images in one data matrix. // The size of the data matrix is // // ( w * h * 3, numImages ) // // where, // // w = width of an image in the dataset. // h = height of an image in the dataset. // 3 is for the 3 color channels. // numImages = number of images in the dataset. Mat data(static_cast<int>(images.size()), images[0].rows * images[0].cols * 3, CV_32F); // Turn an image into one row vector in the data matrix for(unsigned int i = 0; i < images.size(); i++) { // Extract image as one long vector of size w x h x 3 Mat image = images[i].reshape(1,1); // Copy the long vector into one row of the destm image.copyTo(data.row(i)); } cout << " DONE" << endl; return data; }
Python
def createDataMatrix(images): print("Creating data matrix",end=" ... ") ''' Allocate space for all images in one data matrix. The size of the data matrix is ( w * h * 3, numImages ) where, w = width of an image in the dataset. h = height of an image in the dataset. 3 is for the 3 color channels. ''' numImages = len(images) sz = images[0].shape data = np.zeros((numImages, sz[0] * sz[1] * sz[2]), dtype=np.float32) for i in xrange(0, numImages): image = images[i].flatten() data[i,:] = image print("DONE") return data
- Calculate PCA : Next we calculate the PCA using the PCA class in C++ (see lines 19-23 in the main function above) and the PCACompute function in Python (see line 23 in the main function above). As an output of PCA, we obtain the mean vector and the 10 Eigenvectors.
- Reshape vectors to obtain Average Face and EigenFaces : The mean vector and every Eigenvector is vector of length w * h * 3, where w is the width, h is the height and 3 is the number of color channels of any image in the dataset. In other words, they are vectors of 30k elements. We reshape them to the original size of the image to obtain the average face and the EigenFaces. See line 24-35 in the C++ code and lines 26-32 in Python code.
- Create new face based on slider values. A new face can be created by adding weighted EigenFaces to the average face using the function createNewFace. In OpenCV, slider values cannot be negative. So we calculate the weights by subtracting MAX_SLIDER_VALUE/2 from the current slider value so we can get both positive and negative values.
C++
void createNewFace(int ,void *) { // Start with the mean image Mat output = averageFace.clone(); // Add the eigen faces with the weights for(int i = 0; i < NUM_EIGEN_FACES; i++) { // OpenCV does not allow slider values to be negative. // So we use weight = sliderValue - MAX_SLIDER_VALUE / 2 double weight = sliderValues[i] - MAX_SLIDER_VALUE/2; output = output + eigenFaces[i] * weight; } resize(output, output, Size(), 2, 2); imshow("Result", output); }
Python
def createNewFace(*args): # Start with the mean image output = averageFace # Add the eigen faces with the weights for i in xrange(0, NUM_EIGEN_FACES): ''' OpenCV does not allow slider values to be negative. So we use weight = sliderValue - MAX_SLIDER_VALUE / 2 ''' sliderValues[i] = cv2.getTrackbarPos("Weight" + str(i), "Trackbars"); weight = sliderValues[i] - MAX_SLIDER_VALUE/2 output = np.add(output, eigenFaces[i] * weight) # Display Result at 2x size output = cv2.resize(output, (0,0), fx=2, fy=2) cv2.imshow("Result", output)
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ucniranjan says
Very informative demo. Use of colour components in the data, has brought newer meaning to Eigen faces. Thanks very much!
Satya Mallick says
Thanks a bunch!
Masque du Furet says
Well, the demo worked flawless under a nanopi fire2 (same RAM sizeas a RPi3).
“Only” 147 images were kept, in order to comply with RAM constraints.
Main issue with this naive trick is :
do the >60 removed images project well on the 147 images (if they cannot, that would be annoying for further use of projections)
Satya Mallick says
True. Thanks for the test on RasPi3.
Masque du Furet says
Well, nanoPi fire2 is 30% smaller than RPi3 (has the same RAM size, but RPi3 has a little swap partition and graphical RAM can be configured) : performances would be a little “better” with a RPi3.
With 150 original images, it took ca 2 minutes on the nanoPi; once images were resized(with pyrdown : x axis and y axis in the photos space were half undersampled), it took 30 seconds …
One could use the full set of photos, once downsampled, without RAM starvation (and results did not differ much from the 150 photo set, or the full resolution 150 photo set)….
As it is slow, a “solution” I found was like that:
PC computing is done once; given program just exports eigenvalues, mean and eigenvectors to an *.xml *yml *json (latter is untested) file;
other progran reads the ASCII (should be MIME64; unpleasant to debug) (xml/yml) file, and copes with the sliders.
Satya Mallick says
Yes, that is exactly what I am doing for my next post — sharing a model file ( mean / eigenvectors ) instead of the images. I wish OpenCV had a binary format so the file size was more manageable.
Masque du Furet says
Well, I did not think of writing a binary file….
Perhaps plain c fwrite/fread could do the job
yml/xml then should countain “only” : name of the element, , its dimensions, the name of the binary file, the offset (bytes to skip to read the elements), the length to be read….
(example for an image in https://stackoverflow.com/questions/18170136/opencv-matdata-fwrite-to-file-and-read )
Apart from being slow and RAM limited, RPi and nanoPi have small “disks”, too
Muhammad Usman says
Great Demo…
Satya Mallick says
Thanks, Muhammad.
Jeet Dholakia says
great demo, i have been following your posts since some time… Theres a research paper plus code posted by adobe about “Deep photo style transfer” and I was wondering if you could shed some light/ tutorial on how it works, in practical style…
Satya Mallick says
Thanks, Jeet. Thanks for the suggestion. We will put that on our list of potential posts.
CTVR says
you wrote “They are used for applications like Face Recognition, Facial Landmark Detection and”. What is this after “and”?
Satya Mallick says
Sorry that was a typo. It is fixed. In general many computer vision algorithms use PCA as a preprocessing step for dimensionality reduction.
Ben Bartling says
Hello, I cloned the Git repository and when I run the EigenFaces.py file on my linux mint machine this pops up: TabError: inconsistent use of tabs and spaces in indentation, line 63. Would you have any tips for what I am doing wrong? Thanks! The same thing happens when I copy paste the script from Github as well.. Is the best tip for newby just to use script on github as a reference and then manually type the script in order to get it to work? …
Jeremy Ma says
Hi Satya, correct me if I’m wrong, but I don’t think openCV handles the “dimensionality trick” right? so it would actually calculate the eigenvector of the 30k by 30k matrix instead of applying the “dimensionality trick” stated in the paper that will reduce the computational complexity to M, where M is the number of images. Let me know if you need more clarification and also thanks for sharing the code!